A journalist is hard to come by, besides his difficulties, he has his own specialties. Since the beginning of the news activities, professional journalists have been among the elites of the community, but there have always been questions about what a professional journalist does, and what are the responsibilities for him? In the leading article, we are looking to answer this question.
The journalist has a long history of humanity. But the history of this profession, as we know it, dates back to the era of civilization and the invention of its lineage, although in this era journalism was not so comprehensive
, and the rangers and informers in the early stages informed the people of the events.
This way it is found that the news came to the attention of the public with a great deal of time.
Over time, the journalists took on a different image.
The first newsletter or newsletter, called the Octasfatos, was founded around the age of 60 BC and in the era of Julius Caesar,
the famous emperor of Rome; a government newsletter that was supported by the ruling government and naturally published its related news.
Journalism in Iran has a long history. For the first time, Armenians living in Jolfa of Isfahan published the news of the religion of the Messiah and the copies of the Gospel,
and the first printing press of Iran in the year 1190 AH was introduced by Abbas Mirza, the forerunner of Qajar prince in the city of Tabriz.
Subsequently, other printing houses began operating in Tehran, Isfahan, Shiraz and Bushehr. Just a few years after the establishment of the newspaper in India, Ottoman, and Egypt, Iran also launched a newspaper that was named news paper.
The word of the newspaper is in the poems of Persian elders from Ferdowsi and Military to Nasser Khosrow and Khaghani, which has been a sign of the daily recordings of Diwaniyan, merchants and sailors.
The role of the press and industry in the development of societies
Donald Trumpem recently quoted a famous statement from Thomas Jefferson, a former American president.
Tramp, citing this quote, and striving to protect journalists from defending their legitimacy in declaring war, claimed that many of the US presidents, like him, had to confront the media and lying about them.
But reality is something else. Thomas Jefferson was the third president of the United States and one of the hardcore advocates of press freedom.
In a famous statement, he said: “The existence of newspapers without government is better than the government without newspapers.”
Jefferson believed that our freedom, with the freedom of the press, could not be guaranteed, and any restrictions on freedom of expression would deprive us of both of them.
Such an approach to the journalism profession is due to its importance in the development of civilization.
The task of the reporter is to make important news and information public. Reporters work for newspapers and magazines, print news bulletins, news agencies, and online media and go to the site to collect information and field news about events.
Some reporters work comfortably and at the table; others go to the news source, exposing themselves to possible harm.
Education plays a key role in this profession, and successful journalists get to know a lot before their entry into this field, which determines their future career status.
What are the duties of a reporter?
Foundations of journalism jobs
Reporters are primarily responsible for collecting and presenting information.
Reporters retrieve news and events in magazines, radio and television, cyberspace, social media, in the form of text, audio, video, and other formats.
Journalism has a questionable nature and requires a search, review and understanding of the topics. The process of preparing news is through the study of official documents or questions from the authorities and interviews with well-known and informed individuals.
A reporter should look like a well-trained detective, curious to look for signs and trends.
Reporters are generally addressing issues alongside the editors of the desk, checking the news, addressing details, and adding story elements to the news.
The ever-increasing flourishing of online space and digital media also demand the need for journalists to dominate the cybersecurity ecosystem.
Moreover, because of the interest in the masses, the journalists must be able to captivate public opinion, headlines, images and other journalistic tools in a fascinating storyline, due to the interest in the profession.
The reporter should recognize his audience and know how much the audience (viewer and listener of the news) is sensitive to hearing and seeing his news story.
The more the reporter knows the news and the sensitivity and taste of the audience, the more accurate it will be in preparing, producing and writing the news.
Timely presence on event venue and news
Investigating an event and incident as soon as it occurs and trying to cover it
Communicating and interviewing people in person or by phone for news coverage and coverage
Setting up news, prioritizing news concepts based on importance
Participate in conferences and events to get the latest news and get the latest information
Provide interviews and interviews with the help of voice recorders or by way of dictation
Permanent study of new news and events in order to track them and make new news
Attractive for the audience
How much do journalists pay?
The amount of incoming news subscribers varies depending on the area of activity, the quality of the employer and the description of their duties.
For example, freelance writers receive about $ 2 per word for each word they write for journals and magazines.
According to the PayScale site, the average annual American journalist receives $ 39,565.
The American Occupational Health Statistics Data Center has announced the average wages of various journalism professions as follows:
The average salary paid to Iranian journalists is also according to IranTalent’s payroll salary data.
How to become a journalist?
People who are successful in journalism have many common points:
They are critical thinkers who can reasonably and systematically capture, process, and maintain real information.
They are invariably and courageously invariably trying to get the best available or accessible documents and news, and then they do not hesitate to try to verify it.
Though They have a high degree of communication, and their understanding of narrative and skill in storytelling brings fresh content to the content.
An important feature of a journalist and professional journalist is his ability to understand material, social problems, sifting, and increasing media revenue.
If you meet these minimum requirements, the reporter’s job will be right for you. The following tips will make your way to the news area:
Know your personality brigade
With the help of the Myers Briggs personality test (MBTI), one can find out the type and frequency of the personality type of reporters.
The MBTI personality brigades were created by Isabelle Myers and Katherine Briggs for categorizing individuals based on their behavior and thinking, which are divided into 16 categories.
Each character type is encoded by 4 letters (such as INTJ and ESTJ), each letter representing a particular character of the character.
Based on global research, journalists from various media including newspapers, news agencies, radio tv and digital media have been studying the personality characteristics of journalists based on Myers Briggs type, four personality traits of extraversion-introversion, sensory-intuition, thought-emotional, and perceptive-judgmental judgments Gets
Reporters are mostly outsourcing, intuitive, thinking, and judging
In the item of extraversion-introversion (where people take their energies and where they go, the outer or inner world?), Journalists are mostly and extramaritalized in general.
In the sensuous-intuitive item (in this sense, what kind of information we usually understand), journalists are more intuitive, and their information is acquired through their own, not the five senses.
And In the thinking-emotional dimension, journalists are more thought-oriented, they decide on thinking. In addition, most reporters are judges; they are usually organized, structured, and organized.
Get a degree in journalism and communication sciences
Entry to a journalism profession does not require university education and does not require a degree. However, if you are looking for a professional job in the print and Internet industry, you should be able to convince employers that you have the right knowledge and practical skills to do this.
Journalism is limited to some fine art colleges around the country. During this period, students will be familiar with the basic skills of journalism, media literacy, photography,
the recognition of news currents and the flow of content production in the media.
This section can be your gateway to the news profession. But the widespread professionalism of journalism in political, sports, entertainment, science and technology,
and health and fitness, as well as related businesses, such as photography and photography, necessitate higher education and a four-year undergraduate degree in this field.
Journalist professionals can study in bachelor’s and doctorate degrees in various fields related to journalism, including social sciences, journalism, media management, news media, culture and media, culture and communication, and public relations.
These courses are offered to interested students in a large number of domestic and foreign universities.
Enter the journalism school
Schools of journalism and media schools are centers for educating professional journalism and the growth and prosperity of the potential talents of those interested in the profession and comprehensive coverage of news.
The training courses at different levels of education (primary and supplementary) will be held at these centers.
The Club of Young Journalists in Iran is an example of these centers. Enrolling in complementary training courses, in addition to enhancing your writing skills, ensures your career prospects.
In addition, those with non-correspondence education such as business, law, psychology, sociology, and other humanities can enter the journalism profession through these schools and receive the necessary training.
Apprenticeships and short courses of internship are an important step in finding job opportunities.
Unfortunately, one of the main reasons for the high unemployment rate of university graduates, especially in Iran, is the lack of practical skills.
Apprenticeship not only brings a real and valuable experience from the real world, but also helps trainees work alongside prospective employers and establish professional communication.
This communications network will have a decisive influence on the future of journalism enthusiasts.
The profession of journalism has been learned from the very beginning of its formation, often through apprenticeship, internship and experience through trial and error.
It is also happening in the classroom to learn the principles of journalism, but learning journalistic practices depends on real-world experience.
Another important way to train journalists is to study without / with rights in media such as newspapers, magazines, websites and news agencies.
Since professional journalism has always been trained through training courses, young journalists and journalists should be accompanied by professional journalists in order to learn how to get started.
Fortunately, most media organizations have an official apprenticeship program that can be viewed with related searches with a simple search on the Internet.
In many cases, these educational programs are run under the supervision of news agencies and with the help of think tanks at university centers and universities.
Choose your specialty field
In the past, the profession of professional journalism was divided into two main parts: print media, radio and television.
Digital or multimedia journalism is a third area that has added expertise in the field of journalism over the years and has led to a narrowing of the boundaries between the compilation of news and its publication.
Consequently, media convergence is the latest trend in journalism studies. Media convergence involves removing the boundaries between the past and the modern media.
The process of media convergence began in the 1980s. Media convergence combines the old media (magazines, newspapers, TV, radio) to deliver content with new media (computers, the Internet).
Media convergence is in fact the integration of new and old media. Therefore Media convergence has led, unlike in the past, where messages were in their own place, such as the image on television, and each with a separate context to deliver content, today, with the presence of the Internet, everyone is in one place and in a single direction.
The Media convergence has led to the emergence of online media institutions and, in this way, merges all media.
In general, journalists are employed at both general and specialized levels. In the following, some of the main areas of expertise in journalism are:
Journalist on radio and television
Business and Business Reporting
Journalism and reporting in magazines and magazines
International and International Journalism
Online or multimedia journalism
Photogallery and news photography
Journalism in the field of science and health
Make a portfolio or workable album
Portfolio presentation is one of the requirements for starting a professional career in news related areas. Portfolio is not the only “necessary” proof; it can also be a source of information that will show us how to be more successful in competing with others by emphasizing our abilities and gaining different capabilities.
The cartouche is your album’s album and your showcase is yours to the job market. It can be said that the portfolio is the greatest tool and the most effective way of finding the right job in journalism professions.
Of course, there are no guaranteed ways to enter the job market, but there are steps you can take to smooth your career path.
The successful journalists have a portfolio of work including news and published content, narratives, illustrations, and visual and audio report samples.
You can complete your portfolio through training courses, participation in free training courses, and also in the field of newsletters, blogging, blogging, film making and podcasting.
You should try to get involved in your professional business related topics of expertise, including online and the LinkedIn Worldwide network, and communicate with the editors and newsroom chairmen.
In addition to the portfolio setting, things like the recommendation of media professors and special ideas for boosting a media can facilitate your recruitment path in that medium.
Portfolio is a showcase of your introduction to the job market
Continue your education at higher levels
Journalism is a technology-oriented career. As radio and television have become a major development in the news industry, the Internet and the new capabilities of the wireless network, along with smartphone technologies, have created countless opportunities in the field of journalism.
According to many media analysts, technology is still widespread in the face of journalism.
The nature of graduate degrees in the field of news is also the study of these new trends and its role in the upcoming developments in the media and news industry.
Academic Degrees in Journalism
If you are enthusiastic about pursuing social, cultural, scientific, political, economic, or sports events and hand-written articles, your correspondence office is right for you.
But in order to be a good journalist, in addition to personality traits tailored to this profession and skill, you should have relevant education in this field.
You can study social sciences in order to enter the journalism profession.
However, you can also get the knowledge and skills you need by conducting correspondence training courses in some free schools.
In the following, we have a quick look at the various degrees in the field of communications science and journalism.
In order to capture the various dimensions of community communication and its existential manifestations,
the field of social communication has become the service of human beings to provide broad and complex communication and information tools such as radio, television,
the press, and many other manifestations of science and technology to serve information and communication. Between humans.
The subject of this field is to examine the various dimensions of community communication as well as study and
research in the field of communication and information transfer and efforts to improve the communication and information systems.
Graduates in this field must have the ability to critique, analyze,
and research in the field of communication in general and in particular in communicational communication.
This field is one of the young branches of contemporary social science, which is also very new in Iran.
The graduate students in this field focus on building basic skills and mastering key theories in social communication and news production.
The undergraduate degree is the beginning of a career in journalism.
The field of communications science is presented in the fields of journalism, journalism, public relations, and communication studies.
Various skills and lessons are taught in this field: Applied research techniques and skills, Iranian social and demographic issues,
video communication, human communication, media economics, media, general culture, journalism,
social psychology, content analysis methodology, audience survey methods ( Music, culture, society),
philosophy of mass media, human communication, international communication, radio studies, cinema studies, sociology of propaganda refusal, sociology of art and literature,
political communication, visual communication, television studies, press studies, cyberspace studies
, history of transformation The bridge In Iran, the media and the public domain, religion and mass media,
collective communication rights, globalization of communications, sociology of media organizations,
communication and culture, and familiarity with modern communication technology.
The goal of this course is to train highly qualified specialists for news agencies,
the press, radio, television, and the activities of press and electronic media.
The undergraduate degree consists of about 133 units and lasts for 4 years.
Students from various fields of communication science and journalism, in addition to the curriculum aforementioned, will also gain additional skills.
The college of social communication science at the undergraduate level at public universities accepts daily,
nightly (second turn), autonomous campus, non-profit, message-light,
virtual message-light and virtual student-specific work.
The collection includes social communication sciences, including advertising and cultural affairs,
cultural and media studies, media management,
social communication with journalistic trends and research in social communication.
At this stage, several issues are discussed in the field of journalism:
Theories and concepts of communication
The Basics of Communication Research
International Law of Communications
Analysis of communication messages
Policy Planning and Communication Planning
New communication technologies
New Methods of Journalism Research
Mass communication and global issues
Social rights and responsibilities of the journalist
The goal of the establishment of the Ph.D. in Communication Sciences is to educate people with the highest level of specialized university in this field,
in order to encompass the latest scientific advances and the latest methods of studying and researching it,
in view of the importance of communications in the contemporary world, and to meet the pressing needs of the country.
For education and research, management and consulting in various fields of communication (mass communication, telecommunications and computer communications)
and publishing and advertising and public relations activities,
as well as policy planning and communication planning for national development as well as coping with the domination of global communication and the consolidation of identity Fate Of help.
According to the curriculum for postgraduate education,
the Ph.D. program in Communication Sciences includes two educational and research stages (compilation of the dissertation).
The PhD course in Communications Science consists of at least 30 specialized units,
which are offered as compulsory courses (18 units) and optional courses (12 units):
Critical Studies in Communications
New Theories of Communication and Development
Mass communication and international relations
Advanced communication research methods
New Methods of Analyzing Communication Messages
Contemporary Journalism Review
Economics and management of communication institutions
Communication and linguistics
Literary and artistic property rights
And solitary research
Journalism Professional Perspective
After a long period of growth during the twentieth century, the advent of the Internet and the rapid expansion of digital platforms in the field of news and entertainment led to a boom in the profession of traditional journalism.
The US Bureau of Statistics predicts a 13 percent drop in the labor market for journalism by 2022.
The decline in the job market is mainly due to the decrease in advertising, print and radio advertising revenues.
At the same time, today we are witnessing the growing growth of online journalism and the rapid development of media companies, which are making massive investments in mass media and new media.
The profession of journalism and the expertise of this area goes into the web
The profession of journalism and the expertise of this area goes into the web. This evolution in the field of news has created jobs in the profession that were previously unknown. Therefore, there is a clear future for the aforementioned industry.
The tools and technologies needed by reporters
You will need a variety of tools to advance your goals in the area of journalism.
In general, the mastery of audio tools and smart apps in the field of recording and editing audio, the ability to work with a variety of cameras, mastering text software, mastering the Internet search and follow up trends, the ability to manage data, the ability to manage social networks, familiarity with editing software Photos and videos, familiarity with layout software and familiarity with other digital tools, such as content management systems and video publishing platforms, can be your winner in journalism.
Skills needed for journalism
Improvisation and spoken advanced skills
The journalism profession is full of surprising moments. In such a situation, it is necessary for the reporter to say something about himself without the readiness of the past. The language skills of the reporter, which is obtained through training and study, will be solved in this regard.
Ability to manage emotions
Successful journalists are trying to not surrender their feelings under any circumstances, while sympathizing with the audience. The task of the reporter is not the stimulation of emotion, but the accuracy, integrity and integrity of the transmission of news.
Powerful reporters have healthy penis and tone of speech and tone.
One of the main tasks of reporters is to give a glimpse of news. Learned gurlonists do not include their personal views and prejudices in their reports. In this way, they can maintain the trust of their readers and audiences.
Research is the backbone of the journalism. Because successful journalists know that fundamental research is backed up by news and can overcome audience doubts.
Research is the backbone of the journalism
Research journalism is the culmination of professional journalism, which serves as an effective journalistic tool for improving the quality of life of people.
As Anthropologist Ferrite Capra writes in the book “The Point of View, Science, Society, and Emerging Culture,” writes:
“The dominant thinking of journalism in the future will shift from speculation to clientele, and in this form, new professional ethics will be formed that is based on environmental and sociological awareness.”
Thus, journalists have a heavy responsibility. They always seek to make their complex subjects comprehensible to their readers.
When you read the news, who do you think of as your audience? Many reporters mistakenly imagine themselves as the recipients of the message.
But the reality is that you are penetrating a range of specific audiences, so their needs and tastes should guide the content of your news.
Journalists and professional journalists are not only aware of the audience but also the ability to meet it.
This does not mean the use of complex and difficult words in the text, but rather the meaningful and artistic selection of simple, effective phrases and metaphors.
Attention to detail
A monogram in linguistics is the smallest symbol of a written language that,
like letters, makes a distinction between meanings, such as the symbols “m”, “?” And “?”, Each of which can change meaning. The letters of the alphabet, figures, punctuation marks, and Arabs (all signs of paganism) are all subcategories of monographs.
Paying attention to the elegant notes on news preparation
is one of the most important factors in the distinction of successful journalists.
Extensive communication and interaction with news sources
Creating reliable and reliable communications
with news sources and the ability to extract news and key information is one of the cornerstones of journalism.
Reporters should be able to create a space where the information bearer can safely recite his knowledge.
Ability to create unique ideas
In the busy and busy atmosphere of the media, only new and innovative angles will be possible.
Storytelling; Top advertising strategy in the modern business world
Stories activate the minds of the audience, which can lead to positive awareness and attract more readers.
In the era of information explosions, only when we listen to our story we can tell.
Journalists who can tell good stories have more powerful advantages than others.
Time management skills
Time management is one of our daily concerns, and its weaknesses can cause many problems for us.
News activists should be able to set realistic goals and strengthen their skills in decision making and prioritization.
The journalist is an exciting job and the news readers should be prepare to face any incident. A flexible mindset is able to adapt to and learn from any situation.
Meanwhile, such a mentality can easily change the direction of problem solving and can produce different ideas.